Recently, Professor El-Saleh of Nevada, USA, published a paper discussing the various roles of cyclodextrin derivatives (CDS) in antiviral vaccines and antiviral therapeutics.The first part describes the most commonly studied applications of cyclodextrins - solubilization and stabilization of antiviral drugs.Some examples also refer to properties that can mask odors.The second part of the review describes the role of cyclodextrins in the development and stabilization of antiviral vaccines, where they are used as adjuvants and refrigerants.In addition, cyclodextrin-based polymers are currently being developed as mRNA delivery systems. Finally, cyclodextrin was used as a drug to explore the active ingredient for the treatment of viral infections. This new field of applications is still taking its first steps.However, the encouraging results of using cyclodextrin as a drug to treat other diseases are encouraging.The recently approved Janssen vaccine (AD26. COV2. S) contains hydroxypropyl betadex(HpβCD) in its formulation as a cryopreservation agent to avoid cold-induced surface damage of virus particles.Cyclodextrin molecules are heavily used and claim that they can act as a cryopreservation agent to help stabilize the surface of the virus during the lyophilization step of vaccine preparation.
In human vaccines, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin HpβCD is the best adjuvant of choice because it has been approved by regulatory authorities and has excellent safety profile.In addition, HpβCD can induce lymphocyte proliferation, especially T helper cell type 2 (Th2).These cells, also known as CD4 + cells, are an important part of the vaccine's immune effect, helping to sustain a longer immune response.HpβCD has an advantage over aluminum salts, the most commonly used adjuvant.Unlike aluminum, HpβCD almost does not induce the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE), thereby reducing the risk of vaccine sensitization.
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